An argument is a series of facts and reasons to support any point of view. Argumentative essays are meant to persuade the reader of an idea or position.
Looking for ways to create an effective argument in an argumentative essay? You must first identify the type you want to follow in your essay. Thus, we have presented you with this guide to help you know the types of arguments necessary for effective argumentation.
There are many different types of arguments that can be used in an argumentative essay. Read further to know more!
What Is An Argument?
An argument can be defined as a claim or assertion that is made to try and convince someone of something. In other words, an argument attempts to persuade someone of a particular point of view.
While writing an argumentative essay, an argument is a claim developed as a premise in an attempt to persuade the reader. The premises of an argument are the evidence or reasons that are given in support of the claim.
The conclusion of an argument is the claim that is being advanced. The purpose of an argument is to provide convincing evidence for the truth of the conclusion.
Reason To Conduct an Argument
The reasons for conducting the argument are different from one another. Although we know the purpose of an argument is to try and convince someone of a particular point of view. To do this, arguments use various types of evidence and reasoning to persuade the person or people they are trying to convince.
Here are three primary reasons to conduct an argument;
- To judge or solve an issue.
- To present your point of view, claiming it to be right
- To communicate your way of thinking
- To defend something, your stance, or any action
Different Types Of Arguments
Arguments are of different types. Among them, the two are major types. Here we will discuss the two major arguments types and some other types.
Two Major Types of Arguments in Logic
The two major types are deductive and inductive arguments. Let’s find out how they are different;
An inductive argument is an argument in which the assumptions are intended to support the conclusion. The premises for the conclusions are true but not certain. If the premises are true, the conclusion might be true.
In this argument, strong evidence for the conclusion is provided. This type of argument is often used when the direct proof is unavailable or when the arguer wants to persuade the audience to accept a claim that is probably true but not certain.
A deductive argument is one in which the argument’s premises guarantee the conclusion. In other words, if the premises are true, then the conclusion must be true. This type of argument is often used in legal contexts, where it is essential to have rock-solid evidence to win a case.
Deductive arguments can also be used in everyday life. A valid deductive argument is one in which, if the premises are true, the conclusion must be true. It is logically impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion false.
Other Types Of Arguments
Mentioned below are some other common types of arguments with explanations;
Casual arguments are a staple of modern life. A casual argument can be defined as an argument in which the participants are not invested in the outcome. The goal is not to win or lose but to share information and ideas.
A rebuttal argument is when you dispute an opposing claim. It is an opposing argument where you try to prove that the other person is wrong. This can be done by presenting evidence or logical reasoning that contradicts their assertions. Rebuttals are often used in debates, as each side tries to discredit the other’s arguments.
A proposal argument is a type of argument that identifies a problem and then proposes a solution to that problem. Proposal arguments typically focus on social issues, such as the need for increased regulation of the food industry or better security measures in schools
An effective proposal argument must be well-reasoned and supported by evidence. The best proposal arguments can address the concerns of skeptics and persuade them to see the merit of the proposed solution.
A proposal argument must withstand scrutiny and stand up to counter arguments to be truly convincing. When done correctly, proposal arguments can be highly effective in bringing about social change.
An evaluation argument is a type of argument that seeks to assess the quality of something. While this can be anything from a work of art to a politician, most evaluation arguments focus on the merits of a particular policy or course of action.
To be effective, an evaluation argument must be clear and well-reasoned. It should also consider all relevant factors, including both the positive and negative aspects of the thing being evaluated. Considering all these things, an evaluation argument can provide a fair and objective assessment of its subject.
A narrative argument is a story used to persuade the reader to accept a certain point of view. The story usually has a moral or message to teach the reader something. To be effective, the narrative must be convincing and well-written.
By using a narrative argument, writers can effectively communicate their ideas and persuade their readers to see things from their point of view.
The Toulmin Argument is a method of reasoning developed by British philosopher Stephen Toulmin. The Toulmin model of the argument includes three parts: the claim, the grounds, and the warrant.
The claim is the central assertion that you are trying to prove, while the grounds are the evidence or reasons that you use to support your claim. The warrant is the connection between the grounds and the claim, explaining how the evidence supports the assertion.
The Toulmin Argument can be used to defend any claim, from factual statements to moral judgments. It is a flexible tool that can be adapted to fit any situation.
One of the key advantages of the Toulmin Argument is that it forces you to think critically about your claim and consider all possible objections. This can help you to build a stronger case and anticipate potential counterarguments.
A Rogerian argument seeks to find common ground between two sides of a debate. The goal is not to victory at all costs but rather to have a productive conversation in which both sides can learn from each other.
This type of argument was first developed by psychologist Carl Rogers, who believed that the best way to achieve change was through open dialogue and mutual understanding. In many ways, the Rogerian approach is the opposite of the traditional “win-lose” model of argumentation.
Instead of trying to score points and beat the other side, the goal is to find common ground and reach a compromise. This can be effective in many situations, especially when both sides are entrenched in their positions and unwilling to budge. By taking the time to understand the other side’s point of view truly, it may be possible to find a middle ground that everyone can agree on.
Classical Western Argument
Classical Western argument is based on the premise that there are two sides to every issue and that the truth lies in the middle.
In classical western argument, there are three standard parts: the exordium (introduction), the summation (closing), and the confirmation (body).
The exordium sets the scene and summarizes the main points of the argument to follow. It is also where one typically finds the thesis statement. The summation briefly restates the main points of the argument in support of the thesis.
Moreover, this type of argument may also include a call to action or a final appeal to emotion. Confirmation is where all evidence and reasoning in support of the thesis are presented.
Each claim made in the confirmation must be backed up with evidence, and all counterarguments must be refuted. For an argument to be successful, it must be both logical and persuasive. Using the three standard parts of a classical western argument, rhetors can ensure their arguments are as convincing as possible.
Model Of Arguments:
There are three models of arguments. Each model has its strengths and weaknesses. Read Further to understand the three models.
The logical model of argumentation is based on reason and evidence. In other words, when using this model, you’re trying to persuade your audience by presenting facts and logic.
Using the logical model creates a strong argument that is impossible to refute. If you can back up your claims with concrete evidence, your audience will have no choice but to accept your argument.
Ethical argument is often used in debates to appeal. An ethical model of argument has three types, appeal to authority, appeal to emotions, and appeal to reason.
- In an appeal to authority, an argument relies on the credibility of the person claiming to support their argument. For example, if a well-respected doctor says that a certain medical treatment is effective, then this type of argument could be used to convince other people to try the treatment.
- While using an appeal to emotion, the argument elicits an emotional response to sway the audience. For example, if someone is trying to convince others to donate money to a charity, they might use an appeal to emotion by showing images or stories of people who have been helped by the charity.
- In an appeal to reason, logic and evidence are used to persuade the audience. For example, suppose someone is trying to convince others that a certain policy is harmful. In that case, they might use an appeal to reason by providing statistics or data showing how the policy has negative consequences.
An emotional argument is an argument that uses emotions to influence the listener rather than logic or reason. And while there’s nothing inherently wrong with using emotion to make a point, it can often be used in a manipulative or deceptive way.
For example, someone might try to appeal to your fears to get you to agree with them, or they might use shame or guilt to make you feel bad about yourself.
Of course, not all emotional arguments are created equal. Just because an argument uses emotion doesn’t mean it’s automatically invalid.
Many emotionally charged arguments are completely valid and well-reasoned. The key is to identify when an emotional argument is being used inappropriately so that you can make sure you’re not being taken advantage of.
This type of argument is rarely used while writing an argumentative essay.
Type of Fallacies In An Argument
When trying to persuade someone to see your point of view, it’s important to make a strong argument. However, even the most well-thought-out argument can be undermined by fallacies.
A fallacy is an error in reasoning that can cause an argument to fail. There are many different types of fallacies, and it’s important to identify them to avoid them in your arguments.
A fallacy in reasoning can invalidate an argument. By understanding the most common types of fallacies, we can arm ourselves with the tools necessary to have constructive, reasoned debates with others.
There are two main types of fallacies
- Formal Fallacy
- Informal Fallacy
One of the most common mistakes people make when trying to persuade others is committing a formal fallacy. A formal fallacy is an error in logic that can invalidate an argument, regardless of whether the premises are true or false.
There are many formal fallacies, but some of the most common include begging the question, appealing to emotion, and false dichotomy.
To create a valid argument, you must avoid these fallacies when making your case, or you risk losing credibility with your audience. Instead, focus on making sound arguments based on evidence and reason. If you do, you’ll be much more likely to persuade others to see things your way.
An informal fallacy is an argument with a flaw in its reasoning. This flaw can take many forms, but all fallacies share one common feature. They all involve making errors in the way we think.
An informal fallacy is an error in reasoning that occurs when the premises of an argument are not logically relevant to its conclusion. In other words, the argument relies on something that is not true to be persuasive.
Frequently Asked Questions
What Is Argument Structures In Writing?
Argument structures in writing are different ways that an author can choose to argue a point. The most common argument structures in writing include
- Thesis Statement
- Transition between the introduction, body, and conclusion
- Paragraphs with evidence that is argument supportive
- Relevancy and logical flow from the starting point to the end
What Are The Four Components Of An Argument?
The four components of arguments are claim, reason, support, and warrant.
- A claim is a statement that you argue for. You can argue for and against it.
- A reason is to mention the logic to support the claim.
- Support shows your support for your claim. It includes all the reasons and evidence given to support your claims.
- A Warrant is a statement linking the reason to the claim, showing how the reason supports the claim
How Do You Classify An Argument?
An argument is classified as deductive or inductive. These are the two major types of argument. Classification of an argument in these two types is necessary for its evaluation.
An experienced author and writing professional who graduated from the University of North Carolina. He has worked as a ghostwriter, editor, and content creator for various academic sites.